Panipat is an ancient and historic city in Haryana, India. It is 90 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The battles fought at the city in 1526, 1556 and 1761 were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of Weavers" and "Textile City". The first verse of the Bhagavad Gita is possibly referring to Panipat as 'Dharmakshetra'. Panipat railway station is on Delhi-Kalka line and Delhi-Atari/Jammu line. It is also well connected by Haryana State Road Transport Corporation and Punjab Roadways buses, especially because it falls on the Delhi-Chandigarh route. National Highway 1 (known as GT road locally) passes through Panipat, and a substantial amount of trade and commercial activities are carried in and around the GT road settlements. Panipat Museum: The Battle of Panipat Memorial society, set up by the Government of Haryana, highlights the major events that took place for over two hundred years which made Panipat a place of great historical importance. A painting from Akbar's collection in the museum shows how Hemu's community and his supporters were beheaded and minarets were built of their heads to terrorise Hindus of that period. Panipat Museum has been especially established for disseminating information about the archaeology, history, art and crafts of Haryana with special emphasis on the battles of Panipat which marked the turning point in Indian history, The display of antiquities, inscription, sculptures, arms and armors, pottery, old and valuable documents, jewellery and art and craft objects, have been augmented by maps, writeups, and photographs. Through display an attempt has been made to provide an insight into the acts of bravery of some valiant and patriotic Maratha warriors who sacrificed their lives at Panipat. These include Sadashivrao Bhau, Peshwa Vishwasrao, Jankoji Rao Scindia, Shamsher Bahadur I (Krishna Rao) - son of Bajirao I and Mastani, Ibrahim Lodhi, Tukoji Shinde, Hemu, Vyankatrao Wable - a local hero also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya called so after winning 22 continuous battles and who belonged to Haryana, Raja SurjaMal of Bharatpur, Vikramaditya (Vikramajit) of Gwalior, Maharaja of Patiala, Sher Shah SURI. Enlarged photographs of a large number of important miniatures, mostly from Babur-Nama and Akbar-Nama, relating to these battles and personalities connected therewith, have been obtained from the National Museum of New Delhi, The British Library, Victoria and Albert Museum of London. A large number of contemporary weapons, armory, guns, etc. have been acquired through loan from the Archaeological Survey of India, The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Haryana is also associated with this project, has donated a large number of items for display in this Museum. These include replicas of a large number of artifacts in the form of status, pottery, coins, etc. which were collected from the excavated sites in Haryana besides a number of blow-ups of building and sites of historical and archaeological importance. In addition, a large number of items of traditional art have been procured from various districts of haryana with the help of District Administration which exhibit a glimpse of haryana’s traditional art. Hemu's Samadhi Sthal: The wounded Hemu (a Hindu hero also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya) was captured by Shah Quli Khan Second Battle of Panipat and carried to the Mughal camp at Shodapur on Jind Road at Panipat. According to Badayuni, Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of Ghazi. Akbar replied, "He is already dead, if he had any strength for a duel, I would have killed him." After Akbar's refusal Hemu's body was denied honour by the Mughal battle tradition and was unceremoniously beheaded by Bairam Khan. Hemu's head was sent to Kabul where it was hung outside the Delhi Darwaza while his body was placed in a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi to terrorise Indians. After Hemu's death, a massacre of Hemu's Hindu community and followers was ordered by Bairam Khan. Thousands were beheaded and towers of skulls were built with their heads, to instil terror among the Hindus and Afghans. After few years Hemu's supporters, constructed a Samadhi (Hindu shrine) over the place where he was beheaded. The place and its surroundings have been slowly encroached upon by local people. This is the only memorial of Hemu in Panipat but it is in a bad condition. Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb: It was one of Sher Shah Suri’s dying regrets that he could never fulfill his intention of erecting a tomb to the fallen monarch Ibrahim Lodhi. Much later, in 1866, the British relocated the tomb which was just a simple grave during construction of the Grand Trunk Road and added a platform to it with an inscription highlighting Ibrahim Lodhi’s death in the Battle of Panipat. Another memorial, however, is said to have existed which used to be a place of pilgrimage for the people of Gwalior since Vikramaditya, the last Raja ( king of the old dynasty of Gwalior, fell in the same battle. This memorial, according to Alexander Cunningham, was destroyed when the Grand Trunk Road was made. Babur's Kabuli Bagh Mosque: The garden of Kabuli Bagh along with the Kabuli Bagh Mosque and a tank were built by Babur after the First Battle of Panipat to commemorate his victory over Ibrahim Lodhi. Some years later when Humayun defeated Sher Shah Suri near Panipat, he added a masonry Platform to it and called it ‘Chabutra" Fateh Mubarak, bearing the inscription 934 Hijri (1557 CE). These buildings and the garden still exist under the name of Kabuli Bagh called so after Babur’s wife – Mussammat Kabuli begum. Shri Devi temple: A temple dedicated to a local deity exists on the bank of a large tank. A Shiva temple believed to have been built by a Maratha warrior named Mangal Raghunath who had remained in Panipat after the battle, also exists besides it. Kala Amb: According to the tradition, the site 8 km from Panipat and 42 km from Karnal, where Sadashiv Rao Bhau commanded his Maratha forces during the third battle of Panipat was marked by a black Mango Tree (Kala Amb) which has since disappeared. The dark colour of its foliage was probably the origin of the name. The site has a brick Pillar with an iron rod and the structure is surrounded by an iron fence. The site is being developed and beautified by a society with the Governor of Haryana as its President. Ror Maratha community of Haryana organises a programme every year in memory of Maratha warriors on the day of 14 January at Kala Amb in which many people from Haryana and Maharashtra participate. Salar Jung gate: This gate is situated in the middle of Panipat city. The gate still denotes its archaeological interest. A local market has developed around this gate. Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji: Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji is one of the popular Sikh shrines of Panipat. People of Panipat visit this place regularly in huge numbers. There are many events and programs arranged by the followers in the premises of this Gurudwara to pay their devotion to god. This Gurudwara is a beautifully sculpted and artistically designed along with splendid interiors to mesmerize the onlookers. Devotees coming to this place get complete peace of mind in the house of Guru. People can attend regular bhajan and kirtan organized by saints at this Gurudwara. Address: Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji, G.T. Road, Panipat, Haryana, India.




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