Hisar or Hissar, is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district of Hisar division in the state of Haryana in northwestern India. It is located 164 km (102 mi) to the west of New Delhi, India's capital, and has been identified as a counter-magnet city for the National Capital Region to develop as an alternative center of growth to Delhi. The city was ruled by several major powers, including the Mauryans in the third century BC, the Tughlaqs in the 14th century, the Mughals in the 16th century, and the British in the 19th century. After India achieved independence, it was unified with the state of Punjab. When the Punjab was divided in 1966, Hisar became part of Haryana. The current name was given in 1354 AD, as Hisar-e-Firoza by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, the Sultan of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. The Ghaggar and Drishadvati Rivers once flowed through the city, but they have now changed their course. Hisar has a continental climate, with very hot summers and relatively cool winters. The most commonly spoken languages are Hindi, Haryanvi, and Bagri. Archeological excavations at nearby locations of Rakhigarhi, Siswal, and Lohari Ragho suggest the presence of human habitation from pre-Harappan period. Later, Aryan people settled around Drsadvati River. The Jain literature Uttaradhayana Sutra mentions a town Isukara in the Kuru country which is believed to be the earlier name of Hisar. The kingdom of Hisar, with its capital at Agroha, possibly assisted Chandragupta Maurya in his war against the Greeks. The kingdom was then included in the Mauryan Empire, as evidenced by the discovery of Ashokan pillars in the vicinity of the city. The city later came under the Kushan Empire and the Gupta Empire. In the 12th century, the Chauhan king Prithviraj Chauhan made Hansi, located in the present day Hisar district, his capital and built a fort. It remained a strategic place for Chauhan Empire until Prithviraj was defeated in the Second Battle of Tarain by the invading Ghurid ruler Muhammad Ghori. Siswal, Banawali, Kanwari, and Rakhigarhi are some of the sites of Indus Valley Civilization of now lost ancient Drishadvati river flowing through Hisar, Drishadvati river was a tributary of ancient Sarasvati River which still flows as remnant Ghaggar-Hakra River. Historic Agroha Mound and Agroha Dham is a prominent religious place located on the outskirts of the city about 22 km away on Fatehabad-Sirsa-Bhatinda road. A local deity Banbhori is worshipped by local people. Delhi Sultanate era Firoz Shah Palace Complex and Pranpir Badshah tomb are located in the city. The oldest park located in the city is the Krantiman Park, located across the historic St. Thomas Church. The park was built in the 19th century and was then known as Company Bagh. Other parks include Madhuban Park, Town Park, and O. P. Jindal Knowledge Center. The O. P. Jindal Knowledge Centre, inaugurated in 2009 a museum, library, park and houses a 25-storied, 282-ft- high steel tower modeled on the Space Needle in Seattle. Haryana Rural Antique Museum, which is maintained by CCS HAU in its Gandhi Bhawan, exhibits evolution of agriculture and vanishing antiques. Jahaj Kothi Museum, named after George Thomas, is located inside Firoz Shah Palace Complex and maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India. Rakhigarhi Indus Valley Civilisation Museum is located at Rakhigarhi, which is an Indus Valley civilisation site 60 km away. Blue Bird Lake, an artificial lake and tourist complex maintained by the Haryana Tourism, offers boating and watersports, birding, picnicking, and recreation. The deer park and Shatavar Vatika Herbal Park are located at the outskirts of the city and maintained by the Haryana State Forest Department. It was established in 1971 and endangered species such as blackbuck, chital, sambar, and nilgai can be found here. Hisar Police Lines Golf Course is located near the Hisar Airport. Road: The city lies on National Highway 10 and National Highway 65. National Highway 10 from Delhi to Fazilka connects it to Rohtak and Sirsa and National Highway 65 from Ambala to Pali connects it to Kaithal and Jodhpur. The state highways of Haryana that pass through Hisar are State Highways 10, 13, and 20. Besides, there are district roads, village link roads and canal inspection roads. In 1947, the total metalled road length in the city was 137 km (85 mi) which increased to 1,188 km (738 mi) in 1978.[4] Bus service is the major means of transport in the town. Bus services are provided by Haryana Roadways and other private operators. Hisar bus depot was established on 11 August 1969 and has a subdepot at Hansi. As of 2012, the depot has a total of 198 buses with daily ridership of 73,500. All the 290 villages of Hisar district are connected to the city through either public transport provided by Haryana Roadways or through private buses. Auto rickshaws are a major means of transport for travelling within the city. In August 2012, city bus service was started in the city. The city is a part of Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project which aims at developing strong road and rail connections between the cities lying on it and develop them as an industrial area. Rail: Hisar is a railway junction station, and it falls under Bikaner division of North Western Railway Zone. The first railway line to the city was laid down in 1883 when Delhi Rewari Railway was extended to Bhatinda. Currently, four broad gauge railway lines are at the station. The railway station is a part of Western Dedicated Rail Freight Corridor according to which the city is to be developed as an export-oriented industrial unit. The city is well connected to the neighboring states through rail links. Air: Hisar Airport is located on the outskirts of the city. In August 2012, the DGCA approved the Haryana state government's plan to develop the airport to operate domestic passenger services. Its 4,000-foot (1,200 m) runway will be extended to 6,000 ft (1,800 m) to accommodate air service.

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